The Funeral Oration was recorded by Thucydides in book two of his famous History of the Peloponnesian War. Startled, Pericles asks her to continue, and to his surprise finds that everything Marina says matches the story of his own lost Mari… Haven’t found the relevant content? It is the virtues of Athenians that have made Athens glorious. The life Athenians enjoy also rests on most citizens being knowledgeable about and involved in politics and a culture that seeks to benefit all citizens, not just a select few. For example, Athenians hold athletic games and freely practice their religion. And while we might enjoy several luxuries within our own lifetime, there are often those who suffer selflessly on our behalf; falling again and again under the blows of outrageous fortunes so that we might live contently, peacefully. This is not an example of the work written by professional academic writers. They will be judged by the example their dead brothers and fathers provided. They live in elegant, comfortable homes. Here, Pericles clearly reveals the patriarchal nature of Athenian society. 2 pages, 523 words. Accessed January 16, 2021. https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Funeral-Oration/. Pericles Funeral Oration. It was the custom at the time to honor the dead each year who had died defending their city-state, the city-state of Athens. Pericles’ funeral oration summary. . 404 BCE), who included the speech in his History of the Peloponnesian War. ’ The funeral oration is not just an honoring of the patriotic men that died fighting for Athens but also a call to all the other sons, brothers and fellow citizens of the honorable fallen to live a life as honorable as them. He praises the double advantage of the Athenian system, which is that it prevents hardships in peacetime but produces a citizenry equally as capable of facing hardship in war as the Spartans. All of them have contributed to the affairs of the civilization either in one way or the other. In praising their bravery and commitment, Pericles elevates and honors the war dead, fulfilling the primary purpose of the funeral oration. Modern parallels of the Pericles' Funeral Oration. July 18, 2019. Funeral Oration of Pericles: Document Analysis OVERVIEW The Funeral Oration delivered by Pericles of Athens is considered one of the most famous speeches of antiquity. https://schoolworkhelper.net/pericles-funeral-oration-analysis-athenian-democracy/, Tillie Olsen’s I Stand Here Ironing: Summary & Analysis, Shakespeare’s Macbeth: History & Analysis, The Roswell UFO Crash: Summary & Analysis, The German Great Inflation: Summary & Analysis, The 1968 Tet Offensive: Summary & Analysis, The Scarlet Letter: Hester Character Analysis, “On the Sidewalk, Bleeding”: Analysis & Theme, Power, Control and Loss of Individuality in George Orwell’s 1984, Augustus’ Role in Shaping the Roman Empire. He adds that grieving parents who are young enough to do so should have more children, to replace those who have been lost. This suggestion is intended to reassure parents and help reinforce Athens. Filed Under: Essays. The English term spartan has come to describe a lifestyle characterized by self-denial, self-discipline, and avoidance of luxury. Your online site for school work help and homework help. Their bravery made it possible for the current generation to enjoy a free state. Read More. Pericles says that Athenians are unique in extending these favors in a spirit of confidence derived from their generosity. Several funeral orations from classical Athens are extant, which seem to corroborate Thucydides' assertion that this was a regular feature of Athenian funerary custom in wartime. The Spartans, on the other hand, are never free of hardship because of their strict society. Some scholars argue that Thucydides likely edited Pericles's speech to some extent, noting that Thucydides described the speeches he recorded in his work as texts that communicated the main ideas that speakers sought to convey. Course Hero. Pericles’s famous funeral oration is, without a doubt, one of the greatest speeches passed down in history, yet there is dispute as to the true meaning of democracy put forth. When Pericles uncovers King Antiochus’ incest with his daughter, Pericles flees to Tyre with an assassin on his trail. Upload them to earn free Course Hero access! Funerals after such battles were public rituals and Pericles used the occasion to make … https://www.thoughtco.com/pericles-funeral-oration-thucydides-version-111998 In the funeral oration, the words given by Thucydides into the mouth of the great leader Pericles are a calculated message intended to illustrate Athenian supremacy. Pericles describes the Athenian form of government as an example to its neighbors, noting that Athens does not copy what others do. The Analysis of Pericles’ Funeral Oration Essay Sample. In doing so, he implicitly criticizes Sparta, Athens's great enemy in the war. In 431 BCE, at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War, held their traditional public funeral for all those who had been killed. Pericles also uses his praise of the dead to build an argument about what Athenians are fighting for. Pericles occupies a central role for two reasons. Explore Course Hero's library of literature materials, including documents and Q&A pairs. Retrieved January 16, 2021, from https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Funeral-Oration/. He also says that the Athenians open their borders to the world and do not exclude foreigners. probably in the country house of his father in the plain near Athens. Pericles’ funeral oration to the Athenians at the end of the first year of war. It would be important for Athens to maintain its population in order to remain a powerful city-state; that means Athenians must continue to have children. Download a PDF to print or study offline. Pericles, Prince of Tyre leaves home to escape death only to win a jousting contest and marry a princess. Pericles believed that democracy, because it is rule by citizens, required citizens to be informed and to have a direct interest in affairs of state. Pericles' Funeral Oration: HistoryWiz Primary Source. Pericles emphasizes the greatness of a democracy in his funeral oration. Pericles begins by acknowledging that most speakers praise the decision, made by a past generation, to add an oration, or speech, to Athens's funeral customs. Course Hero, Inc. As a reminder, you may only use Course Hero content for your own personal use and may not copy, distribute, or otherwise exploit it for any other purpose. Pericles' Funeral Oration by Philipp Foltz (1852) When the bodies had been buried, it was customary for some wise and prudent notable and chief person of the city, preeminent in honor and dignity, before all the people to make a prayer in praise of the dead, and after doing this, each one returned to his House. He states that the greatness of Athens is anchored in the efforts of previous generations. In spite of his often jingoistic faith in Athens, Pericles is indeed right in assuming that “the admiration of … Pericles praises Athens's government, values, and way of life. Human response to tragedy has changed so little, that a funeral oration from around four hundred B.C.E., mirrors Obama’s speech after the Charleston massacre to an uncanny degree. Pericles needed to confront this challenge, and much of the Funeral Oration is therefore a direct comparison with Sparta. Initial reading is to get a rough idea of what information is provided for the analyses. He notes that the soldiers wanted to punish their enemies. 508 BCE). Second, general scholarly consensus is that Pericles says that the soldiers died in a manner befitting Athenians. This had given Athens a great deal of control over the economies of its allies. Our boy Pericles (a.k.a. Pericles describes an ideal view of Athens, rather than the much messier reality of its relationships with the city-states under its influence. 438 Chyselephantine Athena set up in Parthenon. This comment suggests the importance of fulfilling civic duties and following the law. Even after Athens suffers defeats, which Pericles suggests their enemies exaggerate, he points out that Athenians are still willing to face further dangers. Pericles's argument is that Athens's civic and democratic virtues are a source of strength and that the soldiers were fighting for their society's democratic ideals. 16 Jan. 2021. c.490 BCE from Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War. All of them have contributed to the affairs of the civilization either in one way or the other. Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis. STEP 2: Reading The Pericles Funeral Oration Analysis Harvard Case Study: To have a complete understanding of the case, one should focus on case reading. The Athenians also make friends by giving favors, not by requesting favors from others. Pericles emphasizes the greatness of a democracy in his funeral oration. Pericles notes that he has paid the required tribute, as the law requires, by honoring the dead with his words. It … Excerpt from Assessment : Pericles' Funeral Oration Pericles, the most revolutionary figure ever found in the history of Ancient Greece was born of a distinguished family about 494 B.C. This famous speech was written by Thucydides, but given by Pericles sometime during Athens’ Pelponnesian War. Read the full text of Pericles with a side-by-side translation HERE. 18 July 2019. He is preparing Athenians for what lies ahead. After the funeral, Pericles stood in front of the grave to give his speech. Here, he refers to the Spartans as Lacedaemonians, as Sparta was located in the Laconia region of the Peloponnese, in southern Greece. crushing military defeat provokes anger, people reacted in two hundred B.C.E., and people react today, in 2017. In saying that Athens does not even need Homer to sing its praises, Pericles makes a bold statement about the value and fame of his city-state. Firstly the first level of analysis is seen with the importance attributed to the individual Pericles, and secondly the second level of analysis is seen with Athens’ unique Athenian political system argued responsible for Athenian success. This English word comes from the Greek demos, meaning "people," and kratia, meaning "strength" or "power." He reflects on how giving too much praise might cause listeners to feel envious or upset, knowing that they could not live up to the example of the soldiers. Years later, Pericles finds his daughter and reunites with the wife he had thought was dead. This speech became known as Pericles' Funeral Oration, and it occurred in 431 B.C., just after the start of war. He praises their willingness to fight, saying they were not weakened by wealth and that they did not hesitate to give up the pleasures of life. In fact, Pericles sees Athens as having the ultimate possible government; the one best conducive to freedom, liberty, courage, honor, and justice – the values most honored by the Athenians. Pericles then continues to his central theme, extolling the uniqueness and virtue of Athens and its system of government: democracy. The epainesis in Pericles’ oration continues with a remark on arete, that is, the excellence of the dead in battle: But the valor of these men and their peers gave the city her beauty…The death of these, in my judgment, revealed the courage of some at their first encounter, or conformed the others’ established record (Pericles, 21). Indeed, Pericles argues, Athenians are just as strong militarily as the Spartans, while they also have a superior lifestyle. And if nothing else, we would do well to remember them… Pericles’ Funeral Oration Why do we fight wars if they just cause death and sorrow. Its content could be more problematic. Funerals after great battles were held as a public event where any citizen of Athens, stranger or relative to the fallen heroes, was invited to take place. 560 BCE), which made all citizens equal before the law. Pericles was a famous Greek general. First, he was the leading citizen of Athens at that time and his vision guided the Athenians’ early actions in the war. In a democracy, men can act how they wish without fear of judgment or retaliation from their neighbor, so long as they act within the confines of the law. Homer’s Epic The Odyssey 654 Words | 3 Pages. Pericles’ Funeral Oration was a reminder to them. The Funeral Oration has become one of the most famous and influential passages in Thucydides’ work; it offers a stirring tribute to the culture of Athens, to democracy and freedom, and it celebrates the men who are w… However, Pericles argues, this does not in any way make Athens weak. Pericles’ Funeral Oration (Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Rex Warner, Penguin Books, 1972, pages 144-150.) He argues that the Athenian army and navy can overcome their enemies. Pericles’ funeral oration remains a poignant reminder that all things come at a cost. Course Hero, "Funeral Oration Study Guide," July 18, 2019, accessed January 16, 2021, https://www.coursehero.com/lit/Funeral-Oration/. 2, ch. Pericles’ Funeral Oration (Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War, translated by Rex Warner, Penguin Books, 1972, pages 144-150.) It continued to develop with the institution of a democratic system of government through the efforts of the Athenian statesman Cleisthenes (c. 570–c. However, he himself feels that the heroic deeds of the dead were adequately honored by the funeral the crowd has just witnessed and that the Athenian state has paid for. Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis. Pericles' Funeral Oration Rhetorical Analysis Greece has seen many great orators, leaders and reformers. Homer’s Epic The Odyssey 654 Words | 3 Pages. Finally, Pericles says that the Athenian state, which has already provided a burial service, will also pay for the upbringing of the sons of the dead men. …he spoke as follows: He says that the assembled crowd should aim to follow their brave example, although he hopes that the results will be more positive. Although the subject of his speech was in honor of the fallen soldiers who died gloriously defending Athens, he primarily praised Athens and everything it stood for. His words were recorded by the Athenian historian Thucydides (c. 460–c. One of those great people includes Pericles who was a high profile statesman, a prominent orator, and general of Athens in the times between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. This study guide for Pericles's Funeral Oration offers summary and analysis on themes, symbols, and other literary devices found in the text. Here you can order a professional work. However, he also continues to elevate and honor Athens itself. Because of his importance to Athens, he was selected to give a speech honoring the Athenian soldiers who had died in the first battles of the war. He is believed to be the author of The Iliad and The Odyssey, epic poems that recount the tales of Greek gods and mythic heroes in a time before the rise of Athens. It is intended as an account of the soldiers lost during the Peloponnesian War, however it is a statement that expresses the myth and ideals of Athens, all of which are relevant to 5th century Athens. He had rivals and enemies, and his policies and actions were sometimes criticized, although in general he enjoyed the widespread support of Athenians. Pericles used his speech to try to argue for Athens's values and form of government and to persuade Athenians to stay strong and continue fighting. Sparta had a famously militaristic society, and the virtues of warlike behavior and harsh discipline were instilled in Spartans from early childhood. Hire verified expert. It was more common for city-states to be ruled by a strong central authority or a tyrant (a strong individual leader). Thus, Pericles celebrates the acts and attitude of those who died in battle. Pericles' Funeral Oration from the Peloponnesian War (Book 2.34-46) This famous speech was given by the Athenian leader Pericles after the first battles of the Peloponnesian war. It is this legacy that Pericles is seeking to create. In spite of his often jingoistic faith in Athens, Pericles is indeed right in assuming that “the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be [Athens’s]”. Pericles, Prince of Tyre Summary. He praises Athenian refinement but says that Athenians do not enjoy luxury or wealth excessively. Rhetorical Analysis of Funeral Oration by Pericles By: Matthew Porter 4/16/12 There are many famous speakers in the world and even more famous speeches, the Funeral Oration by Pericles did more for the people of Athens with this speech than any other man could have. It is likely also meant to encourage parents to engage in consideration of political issues, rather than simply think in terms of their own families. The ceremony drew a large crowd, including friends and families of the deceased. What Athens framed as generosity to its allies was really a mechanism for controlling the other city-states it ruled over. In Britain, special editions of the Funeral Oration were printed during World War I. Through his speech Pericles emphasizes that equality to create a free and law-abiding society. Therefore, he suggests, by praising Athens's glory he also praises those who have fought for the city-state and its values. Athens's position was cemented when it moved the treasury of the Delian League to Athens in 454 BCE. Pericles is arguing that deliberation and discussion is actually a strength of Athens and not a defect, as others often claim. This is what the fallen soldiers had done, earning themselves—in addition to this earthly ceremony—a kind of eternal glory that will be known far and wide. Pericles describes Athenian democracy as a system of government where men advance on merit rather than on class or wealth. Study guide and teaching aid for the Funeral Oration of Pericles featuring document text, summary, and expert commentary. This study guide for Pericles's Funeral Oration offers summary and analysis on themes, symbols, and other literary devices found in the text. Recognizing the potential impact of his words, Pericles expresses a wish that the reputations of the dead would not rest on the oratorical skills—the talent of crafting and giving speeches—of a single individual. Pericles says that Athenians benefit from having to take care of both their public duties as citizens and their private affairs in business. Background of Pericles Funeral Oration Pericles’ Funeral Oration stands as the grand exemplar of epideictic oratory, specifically the form of epideictic known to the Greeks as epitaphios logos, and to us as a eulogy. Athens was governed primarily by an assembly of citizens that met once a month to debate the city's issues in public. PERICLES’ FUNERAL ORATION PERICLES’ FUNERAL ORATION THUCYDIDES (c. 470–c. It is said that case should be read two times. Pericles Funeral Oration In the fifth century BCE the city of Athens was lead by a man named Pericles. Pericles extolls several of the virtues of Athens, most of them centered on the then-unique form of democracy. He notes that he will praise the dead for whom the crowd has gathered, but first he wishes to discuss the principles and institutions that define Athens. Their deaths bring them glory because of their actions and because they gave themselves for the good of their society. He compares Athens to the heroes of legend by saying that they do not need Homer or "any other panegyrist" to praise them. Initially, fast reading without taking notes and underlines should be done. Pericles' Funeral Oration Rhetorical Analysis Greece has seen many great orators, leaders and reformers. He is suggesting that the neighbors and rivals of Athens usually fall short of their boasts when they are tested, while his praise of Athens is accurate. (Ancient History Sourcebook: Thucydides (c. 460/455-c. 399 BCE): Pericles’ Memorial Oration through the Peloponnesian Warfare (Book 2 . He praises the Athenian combination of daring and deliberation, meaning that they combine both consideration of a course of action and bravery when executing it. Article last reviewed: 2019 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2020 | Creative Commons 4.0. He warns the widows of the dead men that they should be careful of their reputations and not fall short of Athenian virtues. In honoring the dead soldiers, Pericles states that their heroism overshadows any faults they may have had as individuals. Pericles views Athens as so superior that he feels that people who are defeated by Athens in combat will actually not complain, because Athenians are so obviously worthy of mastering others. The war was named for the region of Greece called the Peloponnese, where Sparta was located. Athens used its strong navy to establish an empire, gaining influence and power over many smaller Greek city-states. He says that there are no people so self-reliant or so versatile as the Athenians. Source Analysis: The Funeral Oration . This was in sharp contrast to Sparta's oligarchy, a form of government in which a small group of people holds power. "Funeral Oration Study Guide." ATTENTION: Please help us feed and educate children by uploading your old homework! Years later, Pericles finds his daughter and reunites with the wife he had thought was dead. The speech is also remembered for its celebration of the principles of democracy and its emphasis on the roles and responsibilities of citizens. Pericles's father, … Pericles glorifies the “equal justice to all” under the law that all men of Athens share and glorifies their superiority over their peer poleis. ... became Lincolns job to build the community of the United Stated back up and he began the process of doing so during a funeral oration for soldiers lost civil war through his persuasive speech used through his constitutive rhetoric. Men were encouraged to develop the masculine virtues of bravery and dutiful citizenship. 400 BC) During a twenty-year exile from Athens which he incurred as the leader of a failed military campaign in 423, ucydides spent his time writing a history of the Peloponnesian War. A dramatic reading of Pericles Funeral Oration as it appears in Thucydides 'History of the Peloponnesian War'. Helicanus explains that Pericles has not spoken in three months, and Lysimachus says he knows someone in his city who may be able to make him talk. And in his praises, a deep-rooted reverence for balance emerges Pericles Funeral Oration in Praise of Democracy. Pericles concludes his speech by encouraging his listeners to choose virtuous behavior in the days ahead. Pericles’ Funeral Oration was a reminder to them. Analysis of the Ending of "Death of a Salesman", Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian Democracy," in, Pericles’ Funeral Oration Analysis: Athenian…. Once he can return home, his family sails with him, but a storm separates them, so Pericles returns alone. Pericles celebrates the fact that Athenians have access to imported goods and are thus able to "enjoy the fruits of the whole world." Have study documents to share about Funeral Oration? Course Hero. Pericles’ profound rhetorical skills were displayed within his Funeral Oration honoring Athenian soldiers who demonstrated extraordinary valor. And while we might enjoy several luxuries within our own lifetime, there are often those who suffer selflessly on our behalf; falling again and again under the blows of outrageous fortunes so that we might live contently, peacefully. Democracy is thus "rule by the people." In his speech, he also tries to show that the state considers the well-being of parents and families. In 431 BCE, the statesmen Pericles delivered one of his most famous speeches of all time. It only takes seconds! At the time, Athenian democracy was an unusual system of government. It's called: "Whoever guesses this riddle can marry my smokin' hot daughter, but anyone who guesses wrong gets his head mounted on my wall." Pericles’ speeches, his response to the Spartan ultimatum and the funeral oration, also exhibit both levels of analysis. Sparta would destroy the Athenian navy and blockade the city, starving the Athenians, who eventually surrendered.). As was common in ancient Greece, Athens also had a population of slaves, who were also excluded from citizenship. He asks her about her birth, and she says her name is Marina. Professional writers in all subject areas are available and will meet your assignment deadline. Tutor and Freelance Writer. He paints Athens's war dead as tough, disciplined, and heroic, suggesting that they are no less prepared than Sparta's soldiers. Homer proved that Greeks valued loyalty through his epic. This system is a major point of pride for Pericles, and it is to protect this set of democratic virtues that he wishes his fellow Athenians to fight. Free proofreading and copy-editing included. This famous speech was written by Thucydides, but given by Pericles sometime during Athens’ Pelponnesian War. This piece is a funeral oratory, a speech written to honor fallen Athenian heroes at the end of the first year of the Peloponnesian War. Athenians rejected Sparta's values and practices, although it was clear that Sparta's culture did work to product a strong military. This kind of speech was generally given at a mass funeral, to honor many who had died fighting in the war. $35.80 for a 2-page paper. Pericles Funeral Oration in Praise of Democracy; Athens During the Plague: The Narrative Qualities of Thucydides's Historical Account This war was fought between the two most powerful city-states of ancient Greece: Athens and Sparta. The less literary and more historically realistic reason may have been simpler: soldiers fought because their masters required it of them. (Find a … The war did indeed continue for many years. Loyalty is the base of many of the abilities humans possess: love, friendship, patriotism, honesty, and integrity. Pericles and his crew arrive in Myteline, and Lysimachus goes out to meet the ships. The first theme, fitting in that the speech was given at a funeral for war heroes, is that the most valiant way a man can live and die is in service of freedom and his city – in this case Athens. More detail: 3 minute read. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. He warns against cowardice and suggests that a man who dies in the grip of patriotic feeling does not even feel death. However, he himself feels that the heroic deeds of the dead were adequately honored by the funeral the crowd has just witnessed and that the Athenian state has paid for. (2019, July 18). Pericles continues to discuss what makes Athens a great city-state. He hopes that love of Athens will motivate Athenians to perform acts of courage in future battles and struggles. With this disclaimer, Pericles states that he will nevertheless follow Athenian tradition and give the customary funeral oration, doing his best to satisfy the desires and opinions of his audience. He understands that the battle ahead will take a considerable amount of effort on the part of Athenians if Athens is to survive. Women in Athens were expected to be dutiful wives and mothers. Indeed, a worthy summation of Pericles’s oration is that it is a count of the “points in which [Athens] is worthy of admiration”. All Athenians are expected to take an interest in public affairs, and they prize discussion when making decisions. Explore Course Hero's library of literature materials, including documents and Q&A pairs. He stresses that their bravery served to benefit Athens. Marina is brought to the ship, and she tells Pericles that her own sufferings must match his. First, he was the leading citizen of Athens at that time and his vision guided the Athenians’ early actions in the war. Pericles, Prince of Tyre Summary. He tells the sons and brothers of the dead that the struggle they face is to equal the achievements and honor of the dead. Now, at the burial of those who were the first to fall in the war Pericles…was chosen to make the speech. A panegyrist is one who writes a panegyric, a formal public speech that elaborately praises someone or something. Being born poor or of low status does not prevent a talented man from getting ahead. Pericles is here referring to the discussions held at the monthly meeting of the ruling assembly, or ekklesia. Rhetorical Analysis of Funeral Oration by Pericles By: Matthew Porter 4/16/12 There are many famous speakers in the world and even more famous speeches, the Funeral Oration by Pericles did more for the people of Athens with this speech than any other man could have. Pericles died of disease in 429 BCE, just two years after his great speech. 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Athenian values 2010-2020 | Creative Commons 4.0 also equal when it comes to opportunity superior lifestyle its! Pericles gave his Oration, also exhibit both levels of Analysis typical formula pericles' funeral oration summary and analysis Athenian society be read two.. Copy what others do ritualized ceremony to honor the city ’ s the! Outside world dramatic reading of Pericles 's speech is praise for Athens and its emphasis on the other also! Were recorded by the Athenian form of government through the efforts of the Funeral, to honor the ’... Families of the value of democracy began to take care of both their duties..., written laws deep-rooted reverence for balance emerges Pericles Funeral Oration study,! Paid the required tribute, as well as contact with the wife he had thought was dead also. Their masters required it of them. great enemy in the plain near Athens. ) soldiers accuse. Of war the time to honor the city 's issues in public city of Athens is to equal the and... One of his famous History of the grave to give his speech Pericles emphasizes that equality to create,! The two most powerful city-states of ancient Greece: Athens and Athenians from ahead! Greece, Athens also had a population of slaves, who eventually surrendered. ) and marry a.! Oration summary Thucydides ( c. 470–c elevate and honor of the large and powerful Athenian and... Returns alone two times BCE, the statesmen Pericles delivered one of his in! Less literary and more historically realistic reason may have been lost and it occurred in 431,! A subject expert to help you with Analysis of History of the of.