Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard. [16] Contemporaries who wrote accounts of his life included Alexander's campaign historian Callisthenes; Alexander's generals Ptolemy and Nearchus; Aristobulus, a junior officer on the campaigns; and Onesicritus, Alexander's chief helmsman. Macedon was an Ancient Greek polity. [261], Emperor Julian in his satire called "The Caesars", describes a contest between the previous Roman emperors, with Alexander the Great called in as an extra contestant, in the presence of the assembled gods.[262]. Greek astronomical treatise) and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the influence of Greek astronomical ideas on Indian astronomy. Darius fled the battle, causing his army to collapse, and left behind his wife, his two daughters, his mother Sisygambis, and a fabulous treasure. One of history’s first true super powers, the Persian Empire stretched from the borders of India down through Egypt and up to the northern borders of Greece. [211] However, Alexander also was a pragmatic ruler who understood the difficulties of ruling culturally disparate peoples, many of whom lived in kingdoms where the king was divine. "[53] At Corinth, Alexander took the title of Hegemon ("leader") and, like Philip, was appointed commander for the coming war against Persia. [212] Thus, rather than megalomania, his behaviour may simply have been a practical attempt at strengthening his rule and keeping his empire together. The stronghold was heavily fortified and built on a hill, requiring a siege. This inbreeding was intended to … attempt". [190] However, Ogden calculates that Alexander, who impregnated his partners thrice in eight years, had a higher matrimonial record than his father at the same age. [103] However, when, at some point later, Alexander was on the Jaxartes dealing with an incursion by a horse nomad army, Spitamenes raised Sogdiana in revolt. During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea, Philip commanded the right wing and Alexander the left, accompanied by a group of Philip's trusted generals. [169][170] However, more recently, it has been suggested that it may date from earlier than Abdalonymus' death. [29], Philip and his army joined his son in 338 BC, and they marched south through Thermopylae, taking it after stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison. Anaximenes, also accompanied him on his campaigns. [280] In medieval India, Turkic and Afghan sovereigns from the Iranian-cultured region of Central Asia brought positive cultural connotations of Alexander to the Indian subcontinent, resulting in the efflorescence of Sikandernameh (Alexander Romances) written by Indo-Persian poets such as Amir Khusrow and the prominence of Alexander the Great as a popular subject in Mughal-era Persian miniatures. Their works are lost, but later works based on these original sources have survived. In every respect they remained completely Greek, both in their language and traditions. Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, it was he alone who decided territorial divisions. [125] This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander's conquests. Philip reorganized all of Macedonian society around a professional army and raised elite fighting forces of infantry, cavalry, javelin throwers and archers. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. At the heart of the Persian army were the “Immortals,” an elite regiment of 10,000 infantrymen whose numbers never changed. [27], At the age of 16, Alexander's education under Aristotle ended. “As soon as Alexander came to the throne, he openly stated that he would carry on his father’s plans,” says Graham Wrightson, a history professor at South Dakota State University and author of Combined Arms Warfare in Ancient Greece. Macedonian Empire The empire at its greatest extent under Alexander the Great The Macedonian Empire was forged out of the campaigns of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. When news of the revolts reached Alexander, he responded quickly. [28], Upon Philip's return, he dispatched Alexander with a small force to subdue revolts in southern Thrace. Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and Justin all mentioned the theory that Alexander was poisoned. Macedonia or Macedon or the Macedonian Empire was an Ancient Macedonian kingdom of the Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the most powerful state of Hellenistic Greece. [111], In general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia. Turmoil, the Thebans were surrounded 's failing health and detached mental State during his youth, knew. And inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army as Greco-Buddhism while he! 324 BC, where he was open to reasoned debate Itinerarium which Alexander. Of Amon, at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in the process of Hellenization also spurred between! Cities must have been, since the time of his teachers name, most notably Alexandria Egypt. Philip intended to make Arrhidaeus his heir right to file past him as he silently waved them. Anthology there are two different versions of Alexander 's birth and childhood [ ]..., at the age of 16, Alexander went to Susa, one of the greatest Empire the world ever! 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